The fundamental principle of Industrial Ecology is the closure of the life cycle of materials through their reuse, recycling or energy recovery after use in order to make the most of the value of materials / waste. The waste ceases to be regarded as such and passes to be seen as feedstock for other activity.
Industrial Ecology requires a plant to be examined in conjunction with the industrial plants that surround it. This is a systemic approach that seeks to optimize the entire cycle of materials, from virgin material, passing through the material in its final form, its components, the product when its obsolete until processing in its end of life.
Waste may become new raw materials that should be used efficiently by another industry. In a time where prices of raw materials continue to rise, and reserves to decline, it is necessary to find alternatives that can meet the needs of productive sectors. A policy of reuse, recycling and material recovery is the most advisable strategy to reduce costs and promote appropriate solutions to the waste produced.